"Researchers are hopeful about the potential for a novel agent in high-risk prostate cancer" states Tony Berberabe, MPh in his published article for Cure Magazine on June 23rd, 2016
New prostate cancer drugs come to market quite rarely because the studies mandated by the FDA cost hundreds of millions of dollars. The FDA requires these studies to randomly allocate men into two comparison groups. One group receives the new medicine being tested. The other group gets an ineffective fake, called a placebo. Assuming the study is performed in an acceptable manner, the FDA will approve a new drug for commercial use, only if the men who are receiving the new medicine outlive those treated with the placebo by a specified margin without excessive toxicity.
Studies designed to evaluate the effectiveness of surgery for prostate cancer take a long time to perform because prostate cancer grows much slower than other cancers. Since it is primarily in older men, mortality from unrelated causes—other cancers, heart disease and simply old age—frequently occurs before the prostate cancer progresses enough to impair health.
According to the National Cancer Institute, African Americans may have the highest rates of prostate cancer in the world. Furthermore, black men often develop the disease at a younger age than white men, and the cancer is often more aggressive.
The term "adjuvant" means treatment “added to” the primary or initial treatment. When the primary treatment is surgery, even when all detectable disease is removed, there remains a statistical risk that the cancer will return due to microscopic cancer cells left behind. Men with high-risk features such as extra-prostatic extension or high Gleason score face a higher risk of recurrence.