Radium-223 is used to treat bone metastases, a common problem for men living with metastatic hormone resistant prostate cancer (MHRPC), affecting up to 90% of these patients. The development of a drug called radium-223 (brand name: Xofigo) is a substantial innovation, not only because it causes less toxicity compared to its predecessors, but also because it prolongs life.
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Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre’s Laurence Klotz, MD, speaks with PCRI about management of low-risk prostate cancer with Active Surveillance.
What is active surveillance, and how does it compare with other methods of treating prostate cancer?
The concept of conservative management for prostate cancer is not new. In fact, in Scandinavia and England in the 70s, basically no one was treated until they had metastatic disease. And the idea was that treatment....
Cancer that spreads outside the prostate gland is what makes prostate cancer dangerous. Metastatic prostate cancer cells cause malfunction by impeding normal function. Some organs, like lymph nodes for example, continue to function quite nicely, even if the degree of cancer spread is extensive. Lymph node spread, therefore, is the least dangerous form of prostate cancer metastases. At the other end of the spectrum is the liver, which is far less tolerant. The seriousness of bone metastases, the most common site of prostate cancer spread, lies about half way between that of node metastases and liver metastases.
In May 2011, the New England Journal of Medicine reported on 695 men from Sweden, Finland, and Iceland, average age 65, who were randomly allocated to either immediate surgery or delayed hormone therapy (DHT) between 1989 and 1999. The median PSA for the 695 men was 13. Eighty percent of the men had palpable disease found during their digital rectal exam. In the men treated with DHT, hormone therapy was initiated if and when bone metastasis occurred. Bone scans were performed every other year.